[In reply to a reader’s questions: SEE LETTERS – briefly:
Q1: Who decided that the north pole is actually upwards and not upside down or pointing in any other direction, the same goes for our immediate solar system.
Q2: Is there is any doubt about the fact the Americans did moon land why can’t we point a telescope or camera at the moon to see the left over module, flags or stuff they allegedly left, after all we can see further beyond the moon with modern technology.]
Well, the first question is interesting. There is actually no good reason for calling North ‘up’ that I can see … except that maps were first drawn by people who lived in the Northern Hemisphere. I’d be interested to hear other people’s thoughts on that.
The second question. The conspiracy theories about astronauts NOT landing on the Moon are all nonsense. It all happened, for sure … amazingly, because the technology was only just up to it … and only because it was supplemented by a lot of skills in the pilots. I’ve now met a lot of the astronauts from all the Apollo missions. The evidence is all still there … there are some new pictures of the landing sites and flags and tracks of the vehicles. Here’s a nice stereo – not sure if it’s ever been published before … of the Lunar Lander from Apollo 17. Still sitting there as good as new, because of course there is really no ‘weather’ on the Moon. You can see lots of tracks too, and another piece of equipment to the right.
And thanks to Noah.